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kb:hard:start [2015/08/23 18:46]
Allen Smith [Computer Memory] CAS latency
kb:hard:start [2016/01/14 01:35]
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-====== Hardware Fundamentals ====== 
-{{INLINETOC}} 
-===== Computer Processors ===== 
-  * [[wp>​Intel_Core | Intel Core Processors]] 
-    * [[wp>​List_of_Intel_Core_2_microprocessors | List of Intel Core 2 microprocessors]] 
-    * [[wp>​List_of_Intel_Celeron_microprocessors | List of Intel Celeron microprocessors]] ⇐ look for "Core based Celerons"​ sections in this list 
-    * (legacy) [[wp>​Pentium_Dual-Core |Pentium Dual-Core]] 
-      * [[wp>​List_of_Intel_Pentium_microprocessors | List of Intel Pentium microprocessors]] ⇐ look for "Core based Pentiums"​ sections in this list 
-    * (legacy) [[wp>​List_of_Intel_Pentium_D_microprocessors | List of Intel Pentium D microprocessors]] ... only 9x0 P4 D CPUs have VT-x 
  
-  * [[http://​www.howtogeek.com/​howto/​linux/​linux-tip-how-to-tell-if-your-processor-supports-vt/​ | Linux Tip: How to Tell if Your Processor Supports VT]] ... Intel VT-x **or** AMD-V\\ VT is required in order to run **64-bit** guests under the free VMware server, Oracle VM VirtualBox, etc.. 
-    * [[http://​ark.intel.com/​Products/​VirtualizationTechnology | About Intel® Virtualization Technology]] 
-<note tip>​**Please Note:**\\ To use VT (VT-x or AMD-V), this processor capability must also be enabled in the BIOS. (Default setting for some BIOS is off.)</​note>​ 
- 
-  * [[wp>​List_of_Intel_Pentium_M_microprocessors | List of Intel Pentium M microprocessors]] 
-  * [[wp>​List_of_Intel_Celeron_microprocessors#​Pentium-M_based_Celerons | List of Intel Celeron microprocessors:​ Pentium-M based Celerons]] 
- 
-  * [[wp>​Physical_Address_Extension | Physical Address Extension]]\\ "​Physical Address Extension (PAE) is a feature to allow 32-bit IA-32 central processing units (CPUs) to access a physical address space (including random access memory and memory mapped devices) larger than 4 gigabytes."​ 
-  * [[https://​help.ubuntu.com/​community/​PAE | PAE - Ubuntu Community Help Wiki]]\\ "A number of older Pentium M processors produced around 2003-4 (the Banias family) do not display the PAE flag, and hence a normal installation fails. However, these processors are in fact able to run the latest (and PAE-demanding) kernels if only the installation process is modified a little. The problem is not missing PAE, it's about the processor not displaying its full capabilities. Pentium M's of the Dothan family display the PAE flag correctly and support the latest Buntus without modifications. The same distinction (Banias versus Dothan) goes for the lower performing Celeron M processors."​ 
- 
-===== Chipset Graphics ===== 
-  * [[wp>​Intel_GMA | Intel Graphics Media Accelerator]] 
- 
-===== Computer Memory ===== 
-  * [[kb:​hard:​pcddr | Double Data Rate SDRAM]] ... [[wp>​DDR_SDRAM | DDR SDRAM]] / [[wp>​DDR2_SDRAM | DDR2 SDRAM]] / [[wp>​DDR3_SDRAM | DDR3 SDRAM]] 
-  * [[http://​www.pcworld.com/​article/​2365823/​next-gen-memory-is-coming-fast-here-s-what-you-need-to-know-about-ddr4.html#​tk.fb_pc | All about DDR4, the next-gen memory coming soon for PCs and mobile devices]] 
-  * (legacy) [[wp>​SDRAM | Synchronous dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM)]] 
-  * (legacy) [[wp>​RDRAM | Rambus dynamic RAM (RDRAM)]] 
-  * [[wp>​CAS_latency | CAS latency]] ... for SDRAM to DDR3 
-===== Card Bus Connectors ===== 
-  * [[wp>​PCI_Express | PCI Express (PCIe)]] ... the "Next Generation"​ replacement for PCI & AGP. 
-  * [[wp>AGP | Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP)]] ... dedicated Graphics Card Connector 
-  * [[wp>​Conventional_PCI | PCI Local Bus (PCI)]] ... Peripheral Component Interconnect -- 32-bit & 64-bit 
-  * (legacy) [[wp>​Industry_Standard_Architecture | Industry Standard Architecture (ISA)]] ...  an 8-bit & 16-bit Card Connector 
-  * (legacy) [[wp>​Extended_Industry_Standard_Architecture | Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA)]] ... 32-bit Card Connector 
-  * (legacy) [[wp>​Micro_Channel_architecture|Micro Channe l Architecture (MCA)]] ... 16-bit & 32-bit -- IBM Proprietory 
- 
-===== Drives & Storage ===== 
-  * SD Flash Cards ... [[https://​www.sdcard.org/​developers/​overview/​family/​ | SD Standards Family]] and [[https://​www.sdcard.org/​developers/​overview/​capacity/​ | Capacity (SD/​SDHC/​SDXC)]] 
-  * (legacy) [[http://​www.retrotechnology.com/​herbs_stuff/​drive.html | Tech information on floppy disks drives and media]] 
- 
-  * [[http://​superuser.com/​questions/​384890/​how-can-i-wipe-a-broken-hard-disk-drive-before-sending-it-back-to-the-manufactur | How can I wipe a broken hard disk drive before sending it back to the manufacturer for maintenance?​]] 
- 
-===== Power Supplies & Batteries ===== 
-  * [[http://​blog.codinghorror.com/​when-hardware-is-free-power-is-expensive/​ | When Hardware is Free, Power is Expensive]] ... discusses high-efficiency power supplies 
- 
-===== Radio Spectrum & Interference ===== 
-  * [[http://​www.popularmechanics.com/​technology/​how-to/​tips/​how-to-fight-rf-interference-with-your-gadgets?​src=soc_fcbks | How to Fight RF Interference with Your Gadgets]] ... useful device frequencies diagram\\ "​Radio-frequency interference occurs when the signal emitted by one device gets unintentionally picked up by another -- creating audible noise or a compromised connection. Some interference is due to badly shielded wires or components, but some is just the result of too many gadgets crowded into a limited spectrum."​ 
- 
-===== Networking Equipment ===== 
-  * [[http://​www.howtogeek.com/​204697/​wi-fi-security-should-you-use-wpa2-aes-wpa2-tkip-or-both/​ | Wi-Fi Security: Should You Use WPA2-AES, WPA2-TKIP, or Both?]] ... "​Devices manufactured since 2006 must support AES"\\ "WPA and TKIP compatability options can also slow your Wi-Fi network down. Many modern Wi-Fi routers that support 802.11n and newer, faster standards will slow down to 54mbps if you enable WPA or TKIP in their options. They do this to ensure they’re compatible with these older devices."​